Past Participle for lexical (Regular) Verbs

The past participle contains two constructions

the verb can be inflected so it is in the past participle in perfect tense

the verb can be inflected so it is in the past participle in passive tense

this is simple enough for lexical verbs

In the present tense a lexical (regular) verb is inflected to an -ed

So the past participle in perfect tense of the verb scare is

scarED. Notice the ed notice the ed notice the ed.

To make that verb passive you would

Keep the same verb inflection (so in this case -ed)

that doesn’t change regardless of perfect or passive form

that’s why

they both fit under the umbrella of a past participle

What changes instead are the words around the inflected verb

If you notice

Auxiliary verbs around

Like “to be” in the form of ‘was’, for example

You have yourself a past participle in the passive tense

Thus, the phrase “I was scared”

Is the past participle of the verb scare

in the passive tense.

The lexical (regular) verb scare

Has an -ed added to it


The lexical verb with an -ed added to it

Has added to that

An auxiliary verb that latches on

Like one of those

Remora fish

That attach themselves to the backs of sharks  

It will have an auxiliary verb next to it

Like the verb to be (one form of ‘to be’ is for example ‘was’)

Thus you have the phrase “I was scared”.

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